NDERF and Other Notable NDE Research   

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Subjective time distortion during near-death experiences: an analysis of reports by Marc Wittmann, Laura Neumaier, Renaud Evrard, Adrian Weibel, Ina Schmied-Knittel  Zeitschrift für Anomalistik | Band 17 (2017) | S. 309–320   ABSTRACT: Studies with individuals who have faced life-threatening situations show that a majority of them report an apparent slowing down of external time. Moreover, a majority of individuals who had near-death experiences (NDEs) reported that subjective time had changed. Anecdotal reports of NDEs reveal feelings of apparent timelessness, which is a typical feature of altered states of consciousness. However strongly the sense of time is changed in NDEs, not many systematic studies assessing exactly how time is altered during NDEs exist. Therefore, we conducted an empirical content analysis of a web-based databank from the Near Death Experience Research Foundation, which has collected NDE reports since 1998. To cover a considerable time range, we selected individual reports from three time periods: (a) 1998 to 2001, (b) the year 2010, and (c) January to March 2017 (in total N = 196). We concentrated on responses to the question: “Did time seem to speed up or slow down?” 127 of the 196 individuals reported a change in subjective time (65%). 120 of these 127 persons reported a feeling of timelessness (94%). The different narratives bear witness of individual variations, but they can still be interpreted as the impression of an apparently lost sense of the passage of time. Our study complements individual anecdotal reports showing an extremely distorted subjective time impression in a majority of people who suffered an NDE.
Key words
: Near-death experience – subjective time – timelessness – online survey

Out-of-Body Experience: Review & a Case Study by Julia Sellers Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research| October 2017 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | pp. 686-708  ABSTRACT: Out-of-body experiences in people with pathological conditions such as epilepsy have been studied by a fair amount of researchers to date. However, there is a severe lack of studies aimed at researching out-of-body experiences occurring in the non-pathological population. In article, I provide a review of the relevant literature and present a case of anomalous perception, in the form of autoscopic phenomena, of a healthy individual who reports experiencing massive out-ofbody experiences, spontaneously or at will, on a daily basis, since birth. Keywords: out-of-body experience, altered consciousness, autoscopic phenomena, waking state, near death experience.

Near-Death Experiences and Psychotherapy by Linda J. Griffith, MD Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2009 Oct; 6(10): 35–42. Published online 2009 Oct. ABSTRACT: Psychiatrists are likely to come into contact with patients who have had near-death experiences, who may have a variety of reactions to the experience, and who may benefit from psychotherapy. We may also have opportunities to work with individuals who are reacting to others who have had such experiences. There is much a psychiatrist can offer to these people, including listening respectfully, being nonjudgemental, normalizing the experience, providing education, and assisting with integrating the experience into their lives to develop or maintain the best possible functioning. Keywords: near-death experience(s), after-effects, psychotherapy for near-death experiences, psychiatric evaluation of near-death experiencers.

Near-death experiences and the temporal lobe. by Britton WB, Bootzin RR Psychol Sci. 2004 Apr;15(4):254-8. ABSTRACT: Many studies in humans suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning, especially functioning in the right temporal lobe, is involved in mystical and religious experiences. We investigated temporal lobe functioning in individuals who reported having transcendental "near-death experiences" during life-threatening events. These individuals were found to have more temporal lobe epileptiform electroencephalographic activity than control subjects and also reported significantly more temporal lobe epileptic symptoms. Contrary to predictions, epileptiform activity was nearly completely lateralized to the left hemisphere. The near-death experience was not associated with dysfunctional stress reactions such as dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse, but rather was associated with positive coping styles. Additional analyses revealed that near-death experiencers had altered sleep patterns, specifically, a shorter duration of sleep and delayed REM sleep relative to the control group. These results suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning may be involved in the near-death experience and that individuals who have had such experiences are physiologically distinct from the general population.

Varieties of near-death experience. by Bruce Greyson Psychiatry. 1993 Nov;56(4):390-9. ABSTRACT: Near-death experiences are profound subjective events frequently reported by individuals who have come close to death. They are of importance to mental health professionals, not only because they often happen to patients under our care, but because they have been reported to produce widespread and long-lasting changes in values, beliefs, and behavior that dramatically affect the experiencers' attitudes toward living and dying (Bates and Stanley 1985; Bauer 1985; Flynn 1982; Greyson 1983b; Noyes 1980; Ring 1984). Several studies, including surveys of recently resuscitated hospitalized patients (Ring 1980; Sabom 1982) and a nationwide poll of the general population (Gallup and Proctor 1982) have estimated that near-death experiences are reported by 30%-40% of individuals who come close to death, or about 5% of the adult American population.

The divided self: near death experiences of resuscitated patients--a review of literature. by Cant R Int Emerg Nurs. 2012 Apr;20(2):88-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ienj.2011.05.005. Epub 2011 Aug 5. ABSTRACT: This paper explores the prevalence of 'near death experience' phenomena associated with a resuscitation event and examines the current state of evidence for causation. Patients' reports of unusual recollections associated with a period of unconsciousness (perceived as approaching death) have fascinated individuals and the medical fraternity. Near death experiences (NDE) are reported in 4-9% of general community members and up to 23% of critical illness patients, although they can occur in healthy individuals who may think they are in peril. One explanation is that paranormal visions that include seeing bright lights, a tunnel and having feelings of peace may be a stage of enlightenment as death approaches. More objective explanations point to neuro-chemical changes in a stressed or dying brain as explanation for nearly all the elements of near death experience. However if this is so, NDE should occur in all patients who are critically ill and near death. In general, patients report positive psychological outcomes after a near death experience. Nurses can support patients during a time of crisis by assisting them and their families to comprehend the experiential event using effective communication and listening skill.

Incidence and correlates of near-death experiences in a cardiac care unit. by Bruce Greyson Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2003 Jul-Aug;25(4):269-76. ABSTRACT: Near-death experiences, unusual experiences during a close brush with death, may precipitate pervasive attitudinal and behavior changes. The incidence and psychological correlates of such experiences, and their association with proximity to death, are unclear. We conducted a 30-month survey to identify near-death experiences in a tertiary care center cardiac inpatient service. In a consecutive sample of 1595 patients admitted to the cardiac inpatient service (mean age 63 years, 61% male), of whom 7% were admitted with cardiac arrest, patients who described near-death experiences were matched with comparison patients on diagnosis, gender, and age. Near-death experiences were reported by 10% of patients with cardiac arrest and 1% of other cardiac patients (P<.001). Near-death experiencers were younger than other patients (P=.001), were more likely to have lost consciousness (P<.001) and to report prior purportedly paranormal experiences (P=.009), and had greater approach-oriented death acceptance (P=.01). Near-death experiencers and comparison patients did not differ in sociodemographic variables, social support, quality of life, acceptance of their illness, cognitive function, capacity for physical activities, degree of cardiac dysfunction, objective proximity to death, or coronary prognosis.

Infrequent near death experiences in severe brain injury survivors - A quantitative and qualitative study. by Qin Huang Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2013 Jan-Mar; 16(1): 75–81. doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.107715

Near-Death-Like Experiences without Life-Threatening Conditions or Brain Disorders: A Hypothesis from a Case Report by Enrico Facco Front Psychol. 2012; 3: 490. Published online 2012 Nov 15. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00490 ABSTRACT: Near-death experiences (NDEs) are profound psychic experiences commonly occurring in life-threatening conditions. They include feeling a sense of peace, of seeing a bright light, encountering deceased relatives or religious figures, and of transcending space and time. To explain them, it has been suggested that they stem from brain disorders and/or psychological reactions to approaching death, a sort of wishful thinking in response to the perceived threat. This is a report on a case with most of the features typical of NDEs except that it occurred entirely without any life-threatening conditions. This evidence is theoretically incompatible with either of the above hypotheses, suggesting that a broader interpretation of the phenomenon is needed. Keywords: death studies, body–mind problem, consciousness

Physician Views and Response to Patients' Near-Death Experience (NDE) Dr. Jeff, M.D., Judith Boss , Ph.D. 1/27/02 This study is a survey of the medical staff of a single large institution regarding physician views and responses to patients’ near-death experience (NDE). A survey of this type has not been previously reported. An Internet survey form was developed containing three demographic questions and 18 questions pertinent to NDE (www.rooj.com/survey.htm). Notice of this voluntary survey was e-mailed to the attention of approximately 550 physicians and chiropractors on the faculty of Brown University School of Medicine

A Review of The Lancet Article by Jody 3/6/02. The is the largest prospective study of NDErs and published in a major British medical journal, the Lancet. The 8-year old study involved 344 consecutive cardiac arrest patients who died and were subsequently resuscitated.
Near Death Experience In Survivors of Cardiac Arrest: A Prospective Study in the Netherlands, Pim van Lommel, et al, THE LANCET • Vol 358 • December 15, 2001 , 2039-45.

A Review of Swiss OBE Study by Jody A. Long 9/25/02. On September 19, 2002, the British journal “Nature” published a conservative study with findings allegedly relevant to the out of body state.[1] The study was led by a Swiss Doctor, Olaf Blanke, and reminiscent of Wilder Penfield’s earlier work started in 1942 where electrical stimulation to various parts of the brain would produce memory recollections

In order to understand NDEs, the first thing is to understand 1) what part of the experience is 100% NDE, and:  2) what is integrated into our waking reality.  I discussed this in the research paper 'Dreams, NDE, and Reality.'  Remember, this is a co-created experience with the person and the divine (Jeff's theory and I concur).  I enjoyed the latest NDE as the woman was reminded in her NDE that this world is an illusion.  We are not our physical body at all.  The research writing on 'NDE and the Fourth Dimension' will show you the nature of the soul and help you conceptualize who (or what) we really are.  The writing on the soul's purpose gives you an idea of why we come to earth.  With these three papers as a backdrop, you can understand that the Near Death Experience is tailored to each individual according to the needs and understandings of that particular individual in order to maximize soul growth.  Since we are all so unique, it is not surprising that the NDE itself is very unique to each individual.  However, there are stunning patterns in the NDE that make it uniquely reproducible and appropriate for scientific study.

Sam Parnia's new AWARE Study is out!  http://on.rt.com/t7gphk You can find the entire article at: www.elsevier.com/locate/resuscitation

What is the meaning of the NDE and is it for the experiencer or for us all? By Jody 10/9/05  This paper was presented in an  abbreviated form at the 2005 IANDS annual meeting in Virginia Beach, VA.  I was fascinated by a book called "Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel Goleman.  I applied many of the emotional concepts to the meaning of NDE for the individual and for us all.  The resultant insights add another dimension to our understanding of the power of the NDE message.

First International Medical Conference on the NDE held in France June 17, 2006.  Click here for more information.

Penny Sartori, PhD This is a 5 year prospective Welsh study out of the UK to explore if anoxia, hypercarbia or drug administration could explain the NDE.  The conclusion of the study is that the NDE still remains medically inexplicable.

Dreams, Near-Death Experiences, and Reality by Jody 3/27/03. This is a review of literature and dream studies combined with a retrospective study of near-death experiencers (NDErs) who were asked "if their experience was dreamlike in any way?"  This paper gives an overview of consciousness and altered states of consciousness as it relates to memories, recall, and narrative of experiences.  Then I compare and contrast NDEs with dreams against the backdrop of reality. 

An In-Depth Study of Drowning Near-Death Experiencers by Jody 3/2/03.  This is a retrospective study of near-death experiencers who died from drowning.  The main question was whether the cause of death affected the experience in any way.  Comparisons were done between drowning and cardiac arrest victims and then cross-compared with a population of general NDEs. Since almost 70% of the drowning victims were children, age was also explored as a factor.  The data suggests that there is a statistically significant difference in the NDE according to the type of death one experiences. 

A Reply to Shermer, Medical Evidence for NDEs, by Dr. Pim van Lommel In his "Skeptic" column in Scientific American in March, 2003, Michael Shermer cited a research study published in The Lancet, a leading medical journal, by Pim van Lommel and colleagues. He asserted this study "delivered a blow" to the idea that the mind and the brain could separate. Yet the researchers argued the exact opposite, and showed that conscious experience outside the body took place during a period of clinical death when the brain was flatlined. As Jay Ingram, of the Canadian Discovery Channel, commented: "His use of this study to bolster his point is bogus. He could have said, 'The authors think there's a mystery, but I choose to interpret their findings differently'. But he didn't. I find that very disappointing" (Toronto Star, March 16, 2003). Here, Pim van Lommel sets out the evidence that Shermer misrepresented.

Scientists Claim that Quantum Theory Proves Consciousness Moves to Another Universe at Death

Attitudes Toward Near-Death Experiences, by Benjamin M. Linzmeier A history of relatively recent NDE public recognition and attitudes resulting therefrom.

This is an interesting article  2/18/12  - if you think about light from a dark room, you actually have measurable light coming from the right side of the head. From studying NDE, our spirit is light. Prayer has been described from the other side as light emanating from earth. Perhaps this light we emit from thought could be a physical way that we connect with our higher selves and with God through space and time?
B.T. Dotta, K.S. Saroka, M.A. Persinger, Increased photon emission from the head while imagining light in the dark is correlated with changes in electroencephalographic power: Support for B'okkon's Biophoton Hypothesis, Neuroscience Letters (2010), doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2012.02.021

THE (NEAR-) DEATH DECODED by Drs. Maureen Venselaar  This article describes a complete new and astonishing theory about the near-death experience - based on astrophysics -  which includes ten new features.

Noor Foundation - The discussion took place in Dec. 2013. Dr. Sam Parnia, Dr. Mary Neal, Dr. Peter Fenwick and Kevin Nelson were discussing NDE's and OBE's.

Incidence and Causes of the Near-Death Experience and Life Review Among the Elderly and Non-Elderly, by Benjamin M. Linzmeier
One-hundred and seven elderly and non-elderly participants were recruited from the university setting and the senior setting. Questionnaires were filled out which examined the near-death experience (NDE) and life review. A Fisher exact test indicated no significant differences in the incidence of the NDE between the elderly and non-elderly. A small sample size did not allow for a statistical analysis of the incidence of the life review and the rate of onset of the NDE among the elderly and non-elderly. However, tentative speculation was made about the eight reported NDEs. In future research, either a recruiting method should be employed or a larger sample should be drawn.

Dreams and Neuroholography: An Interdisciplinary Interpretation of Development of Homeotherm State in Evolution, by Istv'n B'kkon, Sleep and Hypnosis, 2005;7(2):61-76  Review by Jody 1/15/06  The last time I got this excited to see a paper published was when von Lommel published his incredible longitudinal NDE study in December 2001.  This PhD study is well worth the read! 

Near-Death Experiences of Children  4/16/14 by Jeffrey Long MD.

How Many NDEs Occur in the United States Every Day? The answer is 774 NDEs occurring daily in the United States.  Click here for methodology

Dr. near-death: Greyson's heart-stopping study, interview with Dr. Bruce Greyson, 09/2004

Near Death Experience, Religion and Spirituality , by Jody 12/11/02  One of the last frontiers of study surrounds spirituality and NDE.  However, this is a highly sensitive issue due to the nature of religion.  What this study attempts to do is to objectively look at the data submitted by NDErs to the website and to categorize the answers.  Questions that are analyzed include pre and post NDE religious preference, and changed beliefs.  There are some surprising results that focus on universal purpose and order gained from NDE understandings.

Healing and Paranormal Gifts: Survey Results Between NDErs and non-NDErsby Jody 12/23/02  First of all I'd like to thank everyone who participated in this HUGE study.  We had 124 NDErs and 75 non-NDErs who participated in the survey. Without your help, we would never have such startling results to report on! The healing questions pertained to the meaning of healing, whether the participant had experienced any emotional or healing gifts and whether the timing of these gifts was before or after their NDE or other paranormal experience.  They were also asked if they had healed anyone, and if so to explain or give examples.  Past studies are reviewed.  Present tension between medicine and alternative healing is explored.  The main finding of this study is that healing and evidentiality of alternative healing depends on how a person views "healing."  Most of the time the way a person views healing is part of a larger belief system rather than a compartmentalized body of knowledge about the physical body.   

The Fourth Dimension and NDEs , by Jody 11/25/02  From near death experience research, a model that fits the data is that consciousness (synonymous to soul) is a fourth dimensional construct.  This concept necessarily affects the way we view time and how we integrate consciousness with our three dimensional, earth reality.  Our science, religion, and society are all affected by how we perceive our earth reality.  This paper attempts to explain the fourth dimension by analogizing to one, two, and three dimensional concepts to what NDErs are telling us about their fourth dimensional experiences.

Review of New Swiss Study on OBEs, by Jody 9/25/02  The study was published in the British journal Nature on 9/19/02.  Several media articles were published based upon this study.  This article takes a look at: 1) the study, 2) the media coverage, and 3) critical discussion of both, the study and the media. 

A Note on Science and NDE, 3/8/02 Why Memory Cannot be entirely processed in the brain. An awesome article by Simon Berkovich, Professor of Engineering and Applied Science at the George Washington University that presents a scientific model why memory (aka consciousness) cannot reside solely in the brain. 

A Comparison of NDEs Occurring Before and After 1975 Results from a Web Survey of Near Death Experiencers. by Dr. Jeff 5/18/02  The 1975 publication of Life after Life (Moody, 1975) led to wide public recognition of near death experience (NDE).  No prior study has investigated the similarities and differences of NDEs occurring before and after 1975.  Much of the earliest NDE research, in the late 1970's and early 1980's, would have studied NDEs occurring predominantly before 1975.  If the content and aftereffects of NDEs remained constant before and after 1975, this earliest NDE research may be considered applicable to NDEs occurring more recently.  This study uses the methodology of an Internet based questionnaire survey which has not been previously reported.  A total of 218 NDErs were surveyed.  The only statistical differences between the group with NDEs before 1975 (n=48) compared with the group with NDEs during or after 1975 (n=170) were due to expected differences in NDEr age at the time of the NDE, and age currently.  No other significant difference was found between these two groups with regard to NDE demographics, experience elements, or aftereffects studied.

Giovanni's Research  Here is an excel table of 50 NDEs from video/TV sources with 23 data points.

Dr. Jeff, NDERF  12/16/01 We became aware of a prospective study of NDE (Near-Death Experience) some months ago from Denmark. It is my understanding that this study (by Pim van Lommel, lead author) is scheduled for publication in The Lancet 12/15/01. The Lancet is the most prestigious European medical journal. Briefly, this study involved prospective study of 344 cardiac arrest patients. 62 had a NDE, and of these, 41 had a deep NDE. Patients having a NDE and those not having a NDE were followed for up to 8 years. This article concludes NDE is medically inexplicable, and found NDErs had a statistically reduced fear of death and much increased belief in an afterlife, among other findings. In my opinion, this article is one of the strongest medical studies ever published with evidence of consciousness surviving death, and validating retrospective studies of NDE.  Click for this article's Press Release

Soulmate Study Part 1: Soulmates and Consciousness by Jody 11/9/02  As a bit of background, at the IANDS annual conference in 2000, Dr. Jeff Long and I gave a presentation on our research findings regarding soulmates.  I recently started to write up the presentation.  One of the main questions I wanted to find out is if, by including the new data, the results of the study would still hold.  It turned out that we had over two times the data as when we started.  Every question analyzed had such a wealth of information contained in each sub-category that it was impossible to just write- up the Soulmate presentation.  Therefore, I have chosen to write a series of papers based upon the new data and then write a culmination paper on soulmate understandings and incorporating findings of the separate papers.

Soulmate Study Part 2: Another Look at Beings Encountered During the Near Death Experience by Jody 11/25/02  It is a common element, unique to the NDEs experience, to report seeing deceased beings.  Frequently, those seen on the other side are religious beings or deceased relatives.  This study analyzes the beings that were seen on the other side.  The datum is broken down into the categories of familiar beings and unfamiliar beings.   Of the 302 people who responded to the survey, 29% (88) saw familiar beings and 25.8% (78) saw unfamiliar beings.  Of the 166 people who saw beings, 53% saw familiar beings, while 47% saw unfamiliar beings.  The highest percentage of familiar beings seen were blood relatives (25.9%), followed by religious figures (22.9%).  Implications are discussed against the backdrop of consciousness and the Soulmate myth of popular culture.

Soulmate Study Part 3: Emotions and the Near-Death Experience   by Jody 2/5/03  This study is a retrospective review of 318 NDErs responses to questions about emotions during and after the NDE, and about relationships after the NDE.  Emotions are a common denominator between the physical reality and what is experienced on the other side.  The top emotions that are experienced during the NDE are peace, love, and happiness.  However, the top emotion that is experienced upon return to the body is confusion.  This paper looks at the role of emotions during and after the NDE and the role that emotions play in our earthly life. 

Soulmate Study Part 4: Life Review, Changed Beliefs, Universal Order and Purpose, and the Near-Death Experience by Jody 2/13/03  This study is a retrospective review of 319 NDErs responses to questions about the near-death experience and the life review, changed beliefs, life changes, and universal order/purpose.  From the chi square test, all of these factors highly correlate with each other and make more sense when studied as a group.  This paper looks at the role of the life review in helping to understand universal purpose and subsequently the changes that people undergo after their experience. 

Soulmate Study Part 5: Soulmates 2003 by Jody 2/13/03  This is the culmination study that discusses the findings of the other 4 Soulmate studies on consciousness, beings, relationships, emotions, universal purpose, changed beliefs, and the life review.

Index of Research Articles

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