Structure of THINKING – as a conscious perception
Kinseher Richard, Kelheim, Germany, 2016
Structure of THINKING – as a conscious perception
A new stimulus/thought is processed by the brain in a simple pattern matching/comparison activity– which we can describe by three simple rules:
Rule 1: We are in a state of conscious perception (= stimulus: real-life/reality (SRL))
On perception of a new mental and/or sensual impression (= stimulus: input (SI)) – the brain will REACTIVATE immediately a comparable own experience, recalled from the memory (= stimulus: memory (SM)) _ to create a new temporary conscious reality/perception (= stimulus: temporary reality (STCP)). (´Mirror neurons´ are not necessary !!!)
Rule 2: The temporary reality (STCP) will be compared with the input-stimulus (SI) and with our previous reality (SRL) for plausibility (correspondence, identity, similarity).
Rule 3A: When the compare is corresponding, then a mixture (combination) of the reactivated experience (STCP) and the new stimulus (SI) is accepted, to become our new reality (SRL) – our conscious perception of real-life (which will be saved as a new experience into the memory: RE-ACTIVATED memory can be changed !). And the brain will go back to procedure ´Rule 1´ again.
Rule 3B: When the comparison is not possible (no similar experience was found in the memory), then the level of attention / perception against a new stimulus will rise, when we focus our mind/attention onto the input of our senses/thoughts – and this procedure will be repeated: our brain will go back to rule 1, to start again. _ But now, the new stimulus (SI) is compared step-by-step with experiences, who are stored in the memory – in order to find a suitable, comparable experience. AND: when the focus/level of attention was changed, then we can perceive the reactivated experience as our reality (STCP, real). (_ now we can perceive a brain activity (= THINKING) as a conscious experience, which usually would have been processed subconscious.)
Every experience is made of a) knowledge, b) body activity, c) sensual- and d) emotional perception –which will be processed parallel. When we RE-ACTIVATE an experience from the memory we can react immediately o a new stimulus – this is a survival procedure (speed is more important than accuracy); this is also a preview/simulation of the future! This is a reason, how/why we can react suitable on moving objects: e.g. We do not react on the position of the ball, where it was when we saw it – but our reaction will fit to the position of the moving ball, where it will be in the future - when we react. Every experience is made, stored and recalled/reactivated in present tense (e.g. This is a reason, why even deceased persons are recalled/remembered like in a ´real´, vivid encounter). Our recall of experiences from the memory is a ´state dependent retrieval´; what we recall is dependent on two different states:
A) On our physical, emotional and intellectual abilities – when we make an experience and store it into the memory.
B) On our physical, emotional and intellectual abilities – when we recall/reactivate an experience from the memory.
This does mean, that our recalled memories will/might be changed with the retrieval – this alteration is a reason for false memories. But this is also the reason why/how old experiences are translated/transferred into new experiences (Therefore we can use our experiences over life-span – although we change us permanently).
When we RE-ACTIVATE an own experience as reaction on a perceived situation – we can understand what we had perceived (based on our OWN knowledge): this is the origin of EMPATHY, THEORY OF MIND, but also of PREJUDICE and FALSE MEMORIES (prejudice: We reactivate own experiences which were made with the own ethnic group/family – this might create a misunderstanding of foreign/strange behavior).
A Baby can create new knowledge/experience when it IMITATE the bodily-/emotional-behaviour which
it had observed at other persons.. By this imitation it will create a COPY of a perceived situation, with
the own body/emotion – this copy is then saved as an OWN experience into the memory.
Examples of different situations:
- When on the perception of the stimulus ABCD – an own experience ABCD is reactivated – then both
stimuli are identical and we can react immediately.
- When the stimulus ABCD will trigger the reactivation of ABCe, then both experiences are not
completely identical – this might be perceived as a ´déjà-vu´.
- When as reaction on stimulus ABCD – the brain reactivate ABef and CDfg (combined = ABCDeffg) –
we can recognize here the origin of CREATIVITY: When we give every component a value ´1´, then
double-ff will get (2*1=) 2 (= an emphasis, in compare to the other components of the stimulus) = the
´Aha-/Heureka-Moment´. This procedure can also explain the phenomena ´mind wandering´, ´day
dreaming´ or even ´unwanted/unwelcome memories´ - when the combined experience with ´ff´ will be
used as a new input stimulus (SI).
Confirmation of this structure - and rules:
Two well known phenomena can be described by the structure/rules of thinking which was introduced in the text above:
1) Slow-motion perception of a flying ball in tennis and baseball it is sometimes reported to have perceived the flying ball like in a slow-motion movement. This effect can be explained very simple:
A) On perception of the flying ball (SI) – a comparable experience to the ball´s position (body reaction included) is reactivated (= STCP); [= Rule 1].
B) Then the reactivated memory (STCP) will be compared with the reality (SI) [= Rule 2] – but this comparison will go wrong; because the ball has continued to move on and is now in a new position.
Therefore the focus of attention towards the flying ball will rise [= Rule 3] and for the new position of the ball – again a new comparable experience will be recalled/reactivated from the memory [= Rule 1; =A) ]
This procedure will be repeated several times and can be perceived as a conscious experience. The origin of the slow-motion perception is a) that the level of attention was changed in order to find a suitable reaction (memory) – and b) this procedure will need some time: The flying ball will move on, but only the position of the reactivated memory (STCP) will step-by-step come into conscious perception. The advantage for a sportsman/-woman is, that they will focus their mind and perception only towards the flying ball. This will allow them a suitable/perfect reaction.
2) Near-Death Experience (NDE) – a conscious perception: procedures/strategies of thinking
(FOREWORD: NDEs are well known since 1975 when Dr. Raymond A. Moody published this idea in his book `Life after Life´: When a person hears to be declared by medical staff as dead or when a person think by itself to die – then NDEs might start: e.g. with a quick review of the own life-span experiences and sometimes an ´out-of-body experience´, where the own body can be observed from a position above. Moody described NDEs as an EXPERIENCE OF DYING – but in his text he wrote very clear that all persons were alive and that it is possible to observe the surrounding even in detail (parallel to the NDE).
A person who had an experience of dying – must be a corpse. Death is not reversible; therefore, nobody is able to report a dying experience. / Epikure said already 2300 years ago: ´as long as I exist – death is not here, when death is here – then I do not exist´. Therefore, the idea/term ´Near-Death´ was and is a nonsense – but I have to use it here because it is a fixed term in literature. My explanation model about NDEs is based on the statement – that death is not reversible and that all persons were alive with a clear conscious mind, when they had their NDE!)
Explanation model of ´Near-Death Experience´(NDE)
A) When a person hear/think ´I am dead/I will die´, then is this stimulus(thought)
incomprehensible/wrong for a person who is alive. Therefore, a comparison with own experiences is not possible and the brain will change the focus of attention to solve this problem [= Rule 3B]. This is the reason why it is possible to perceive a process of thinking as a conscious experience; the brain will use two different strategies (B,C):
B) By this strategy, the strange stimulus (experience: I will die) will be compared step-by-step [always with Rule 1-3] against each of those autobiographical experiences who are stacked up in the episodic memory. Each of these experiences will be RE-ACTIVATED and additional changed in a ´state dependent retrieval´. This procedure is performed with an extremely high speed – therefore all live-span experiences of a person are recalled rapid, in (a) second(s) like a real life-review in a conscious perception.
C) Sometimes a virtual simulation of the actual situation is created by the brain: the ´out-of-body experience´(OBE). OBES are crated meanwhile by the Karolinska Institute (Stockholm) completely with healthy persons in the brain-scanner! In NDEs, OBEs are perceived alone, at the beginning, in between or towards the end. Therefore we can say, that all persons who had a NDE are mentally as clear and conscious as the persons in the brain-scanner experiment. (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015 /04/150430123107.htm ´Brain scan reveals out-of-body illusion´; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.03.059 – additional we know from lucid-dreaming experiences, that it is possible to fly, to move through walls – as a mental imagination)
D) When a different/another stimulus comes into perception – then the NDE is finished.
(This explanation model was developed with the knowledge, which is available since 1975 in the book ´Life after Life´! )
Structure of the episodic memory – perceived in a conscious recall
NDEs show, that experiences from the episodic memory are recalled in ascending/descending order or in spots. Responsible for the order is the state of the brain prior to the strange stimulus, which will start the NDE. (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/ 2015/03/150313110402.htm ´Free will? Analysis of worm neurons suggest how a single stimulus can trigger different responses´: DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.018) I will describe the recalled experiences here in ascending hierarchical order.
This text is theoretical! – it describe some experiences which are possible since the 5th month of fetus age =A) – and how these experiences might be changed in a ´state dependent retrieval´ by an adult person = B).
When we compare the B)-texts and NDE-reports which are published since 1975 in ´Life after Life´ -then we can recognize that a lot of details are identical. Therefore we can say: In NDEs we do recall experiences since the 5th month of fetus-age from the episodic memory. AND: Experiences are stacked up in the memory and recalled in hierarchical order!
1A) Earlier than the 20th week of pregnancy a fetus can feel skin contacts but neither hear nor see anything _ 1B) An adult person will recall this as a pleasant state in quietness (with the complete absence of optical/acoustic impressions because ear/eye do not work now).
2A) Since the 20th week of pregnancy, the acoustic sense is active. A fetus can hear sounds of speech, heartbeats, breathing and digestion _ 2B) Adult persons have already developed a sense for the rhythm/melody of language and music. Recalled experiences therefore will be perceived as unusual, ugly and very loud sounds.
3A) The development of the optical sense is a step-by-step action. At the begin is darkness and the area of perceived light will increase with the number of optical cells who are working _ 3B) When we recall these experiences, we have the illusion to be in a dark tunnel and to move very quick towards a light of increasing size (a similar illusion like in a film, where movement is created by a fast sequence of single pictures). (The perception of sound is now reduced. This effect is named ´habituation´, Prof. Dr. Jan Nijhuis, Prof. Dr. Charlene Krueger) 4) When the perception of light change from dim to a brilliant brightness – then is this the light
perception before and after birth.
5A) After birth a baby is almost blind, it can feel the tender loving touches and hear when parents talk friendly to it – and will combine all these different experiences to an integrated whole _ 5B) In a state dependent retrieval, we might have the impression to have met a light/´being of light´ **) with an own personality, a source of unlimited love and affection.
6A) At an age of 6 month, babies can distinguish colors, but infants can make mistakes when they store the combination of color and object as an experience into the memory – until an age of 4 years (Prof.
Vanessa Simmering) _ 6B) At a recall we might perceive buildings/landscapes in bright and phantasmal colors (This is not in Moody´s book)
7) NDE-reports of the early childhood describe, that we do recall our parents as ´being of light´ **) in an age, where we can use and understand language: We are told in this age what good/bad/selfish/friendly/morality behavior is – and that we shall learn throughout our complete life-span. (Moody, chapter ´The Review´) 8) When we are able to speak and to describe our world with words, then we can describe and remember experiences – up to our actual age.
( **) = recalled experiences are perceived vivid/real because they are in present tense. The experience of a real ´encounter´ with deceased persons and with a ´being of light´ - a source of unlimited love – might be (lifelong) a reason for resilience (which help us to overcome even great misfortune) and for the human inclination to spirituality.)
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(When a long-standing partner died, the bereaved person can have a ´after death communication´(ADC) in the flat/house: the deceased person is recalled like real/vivid – sometimes it is even possible to ´talk´. The reason for this is simple: when a lot of details in the flat are identical over years – the deceased partner is RE-ACTIVATED together with this information. This ADC will vanish after several weeks – when it was learned, that the deceased person is not in the flat – or when the flat will be changed (other details: furniture, surrounding, smells).
Why is this important to memory research?
In NDEs we can perceive as a conscious experience how a single stimulus is processed by the brain – using two different strategies. This access to the memory is unique !!! – and was never discussed in science.
We can perceive that episodic memories are stacked up in hierarchical order since the 5th month of fetal age – therefore the term ´childhood/infantile amnesia´ is doubtful/wrong.
We have to describe most of the NDE-research up to now with the terms BUNGLE and FRAUD – because NDEs were only discussed as dying experience, as hallucination of dying persons – but never as the experiences of persons with a clear conscious mind!
Literature (available as books and as e-books):
Kinseher Richard: Near-Death Experiences completely explained (very cheap, very small book, only with basic information in poor English)Kinseher Richard: Pfusch, Betrug, Nahtod-Erfahrung (good information in German language, the title refer to the bad quality of NDE-research up to now. My explanation model of NDEs is based mainly on the book of Dr. Moody ´Life after Life´ to demonstrate, that it might have been possible to explain the phenomenon ´Near-Death Experience´ already 1975)